Have you been married for a long time but still don’t have children? There may be fertility problems that occur to you or your partner that hinder the process of fertilization.
The fertility problem itself is an ordinary condition that occurs. Based on data from DIPA Healthcare research, at least 11 percent of the approximately 150 million couples of productive age in Indonesia experience infertility conditions.
We have summarized the complete discussion below to see the causes and types of infertility in men and women.
Types of Fertility Disorders in Women
Fertility problems are often the reason behind the difficulty of getting children. Various factors can cause this condition itself. Therefore, you need to know how to test female fertility naturally or to the nearest health service center if you find this problem.
1. Disorders Related to Uterus Shape
Usually, a woman’s uterus is shaped like a pear. However, there are times when the uterus has an abnormal shape in some cases. Disorders related to uterine deformities, in general, do not cause any effects or symptoms that threaten the sufferer’s health, but this will only become a problem when you want to have children.
An example of a uterine deformity is a Bicornuate uterus, where the uterus is not shaped like a pear but is more like a heart. Then there is also a disorder called uterine didelphys, in which the uterus has two internal cavities, two cervixes, and two vaginas.
2. Blockage in the Fallopian Tubes
Fertility disorders in women in the form of blockage of the fallopian tubes can be caused by several things, such as pelvic inflammation, a history of organ surgery in the abdominal cavity, to sexually transmitted diseases.
The condition of a blocked fallopian tube in women causes the sperm cell can’t meet the egg cell. As a result, fertilization in the uterus cannot occur.
Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue that usually grows in the uterus grows and implants in other body parts. Treating endometriosis, which is done by surgical removal, is often the cause of fertility problems because it creates scar tissue.
The appearance of scar tissue itself often hinders the fertilization of the egg by sperm and blocks the fallopian tube.
4. Submucosal Fibroid
For those of you who don’t know, Submucosal fibroid is a term to refer to benign tumors that grow in or around a woman’s uterus. Unfortunately, the factors that trigger the appearance of Submucosal fibroids are not yet known.
On the other hand, fibroids that can develop in the lining of the wall to the uterine cavity prevent the embryo from implanting in the uterus.
5. Cervical Mucus Disorders
A woman’s cervical mucus naturally becomes watery and thinner than usual during ovulation. This is one of the aims to make it easier for sperm to move towards the egg. Unfortunately, the abnormality in cervical mucus hinders the pregnancy process.
6. Ovulation Disorder
A woman’s fertile period is influenced by her ovulation period. As a result, when the ovulation period is disturbed, the natural fertilization process cannot be carried out.
Ovulation disorders can be caused by several things, including thyroid hormone disorders, both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid, a premature ovarian failure that can occur when the ovaries stop producing eggs, and polycystic ovary syndrome.
Types of Fertility Disorders in Men
Fertility disorders in men generally occur due to abnormalities in sperm cells. Here are some examples of types of sperm abnormalities that need to be known.
Male fertility problems can occur due to the number of sperm released when ejaculation is less than the standard limit. Hypothermia is when the semen produced during sexual intercourse is less than 1.5 ml.
The cause can be from various things, such as sexual dysfunction, defects in the reproductive tract, hormonal imbalance, retrograde ejaculation to genetic disorders.
Normal sperm shape generally only has one head and one tail. However, in patients with Teratozoospermia, sperm cells have abnormalities such as the presence of more than one tail or head.
Teratozoospermia is most likely caused by a genetic abnormality problem, while the medical impact makes the sperm motility decrease and cannot reach the egg.
3. Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT)
This fertility disorder is the most common problem experienced by adult men. Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) can occur when sperm shape, motility, and quantity are abnormal. The severity can be identified in three levels: mild, moderate, and severe.
Asthenozoospermia abnormalities occur due to motility of sperm movement that is not as it should be. If the sperm moves in a straight line or a large circle under normal conditions, the sperm cells with Asthenozoospermia move irregularly.
The low number of sperm cells released along with semen is one of the causes of this condition. In addition, the ability of sperm movement is usually also influenced by excessive alcohol consumption, exposure to toxins, and inadequate nutritional intake.
Aspermia is a condition in which a man does not release semen and sperm during ejaculation. Some of the causes that trigger this condition include genetic disorders, sexual dysfunction, to hormonal imbalances.
Causes of Fertility Disorders
According to the Ministry of Health, Infertility disorders can be caused by many factors. The following are some examples of causes of infertility in men and women that need attention.
1. Age factor
Women are the most vulnerable to fertility problems when it comes to age. Over time, a woman’s fertility rate will continue to decline because the quality and number of eggs produced decreases.
In addition to triggering the risk of fertility disorders, the age factor also has a lot of influence on the fetus’s health. Therefore, being pregnant and giving birth at the age of over 45 is not recommended from a health point of view.
2. Effects of Alcohol and Liquor
Consuming too much liquor is not only bad for kidney health but can also trigger fertility problems. It is known that women who like to consume alcoholic beverages in the long term are more at risk of suffering endometriosis and ovulation disorders.
Therefore, you and your partner should start limiting the consumption of alcoholic beverages if you want to have a baby soon.
3. Excessive Stress
Commonly, excessive stress can trigger various health problems, including fertility problems. Extreme stress conditions experienced by women will usually affect the hormone system. The impact can slow menstruation to reduce sexual desire.
Similar conditions can also happen to men. The workload, life pressure, or other things that can cause excessive stress will automatically reduce sexual arousal and the quality of sperm cells produced.
4. Weight Not Ideal
Both men and women need to maintain an ideal body weight. According to WHO, infertility or health problems can also be triggered by obesity (excess weight conditions) or body weight that is too low. You can get your ideal body weight by calculating your body mass index (BMI).
5. Effects of Smoking
Smoking is one of the bad habits that must be stopped. There are various threats to health problems that can occur due to this habit. Starting from lung problems, oral cancer, stomach disorders to lower fertility rates in men and women.
Smoking habits are one of the causes of infertility in men. Impacts include impotence, decreased sperm cell production, and testicular cancer.
That is the explanation of fertility disorders and the various causes that can occur to both men and women. Many factors can trigger infertility problems, but you don’t need to worry because it is relatively easy to overcome along with the development of medical technology.