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Fertilization Process and the Start of Pregnancy


Being a mother is the most delightful moment. Pregnancy that happened because of fertilization process is a most anticipated moment. The mystery of fertilization that happened inside the body, could not be felt or realized until the pregnancy happened few weeks after.

The occurrence of fertilization and pregnancy could not be separated from the role of:

  1. Hormone

Which is chemicals produced in particular parts inside the human body. Hormone circulates along with blood flow and have impact on several parts of the body. For example, estrogen or female sex hormone, which produced in ovaries. Estrogen give different effect on female body. During child puberty age, estrogen helps the growth of breast and controls the menstruation. For adult women, this hormone is important for pregnancy.

  1. Ovulation

From birth, female baby already have ovum. In their early childhood, they are starting to lose the ovum. But until the age of 50, a women could have 1000 ovum. Ovulation cycle was triggered by hormone that controlled by pituitary gland in the brain.

This gland release FSH hormone (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) that stimulates follicle inside the ovaries. FSH stimulates about 20 follicles on the surface of the ovaries to grow. Inside those follicle there is a growing ovum.

Another hormone is estrogen that produced in ovaries. In responding to increase the estrogen, the biggest follicle will continue its growth. That is why pregnancy usually only resulting in one baby.

Meanwhile LH (luteinizing hormone), also produced in the pituitary gland, caused follicle inside ovaries to release the ovum. The release of the ovum called ovulation. In general, ovulation occurred in the middle of the cycle, or 14 days before the first day of menstruation. This cycle was controlled by hormone.

Certain hormones ‘notify’ the ovaries to release the ovum and preparing the body for pregnancy. After the ovulation, empty follicle formed a structure called corpus luteum which produce hormone called progesterone. This hormone will increase in number after ovulation and preparing the womb to receive the fertilized ovum.

Fertilization by sperm, if that happened, will occur in fallopian tube, then move towards the womb. If the ovum does not fertilized or embryo does not implanted on the womb, the progesterone will decrease and menstruation will occur. All of the cycle will happen all over again.

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