Knowing a sufficient age before undergoing the process of pregnancy is one of the essential things for every couple. Besides the need for mental readiness, this condition can also help reduce the risk of getting pregnant at a young or too old age so that there is no threat of health problems.
According to BKKBN’s data, there are still many pregnancies at a young age in Indonesia. The number of pregnancies and births in teenagers aged 10-19 has even reached 48,5 million. Whereas the ideal of pregnancy and childbirth in women are in the range of 21-35 years.
So, what are the risks of teenage pregnancies that can danger health? Below are examples of health problems that can be experienced both by the mother and the baby when pregnant at an early age.
Pregnancy Factor Cause in Teenager
However, pregnancy at an early age can be triggered by many factors. Below are some causes that could be the basis regarding this condition.
The development of the era makes it difficult to limit the society of teenagers. Promiscuity itself is an attitude or action carried out without respecting the law and norms that apply in the community.
Examples of forms of promiscuity that often occur are drinking, free sex, smoking, fighting, and consuming illegal drugs.
2. Lack of Knowledge and Education
Sexual knowledge and education are essential for today’s youth. However, unfortunately, some people still consider this a taboo, so unwanted things still happen, such as getting pregnant before marriage.
3. Criminal Action
Another factor that can cause pregnancy in a teenager is criminal acts. The rise of sex offenders can automatically threaten the safety of children from health problems.
Risks of Young Age Pregnancy for Maternal Health
Many risks can threaten the mother’s health when pregnant at a young age. The earlier the baby is born, the greater the potential for health problems experienced. Here are some examples of the risks of early pregnancy that often occur.
1. Reproductive Organ Damage
Damage to reproductive organs is a severe threat due to early pregnancy. This possibility can occur due to the condition of the immature uterus, resulting in repeated miscarriages.
The potential for damage to the reproductive organs can cause women not to get pregnant again. If this happens, the worst possibility is that they can only get children through the adoption process or IVF.
2. Risk of Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is one type of deadly disease that is difficult to detect. The main cause factor is directly related to activities carried out from an early age.
The younger women have sex and get pregnant, the risk of cervical cancer will also be more significant. The bad news is that, on average, cervical cancer is only detected within 10-20 years of its development in the womb.
3. Anemia Disorders During Birth
The following risk of young age pregnancy is anemia. This condition has the potential to occur during the birth process. The reason is the body’s condition that is still too small so that there is a lack of blood when bleeding occurs.
4. High Miscarriage Potential
Many things can cause miscarriage or abortion. However, in pregnancy at a young age, miscarriage usually occurs because the uterus is not ready, driving the development and growth of the fetus to be less than optimal.
5. Depression or Excessive Anxiety
The majority of couples, especially women who get pregnant at a young age, are relatively unsettled psychologically and financially. The reason is, under the age of 20, they should still be in school or still want to find their identity.
Limit activities that can be done due to pregnancy will certainly cause depression or excessive anxiety. Then this triggers a decline in the fetus’s health and the mental health of the mother during pregnancy.
Besides, depression can also occur after childbirth. A teenager under the age of 20 who are still experiencing hormonal development may not be ready to carry out their roles as mothers and wives who serve the various needs of their husbands.
Moreover, suppose pregnancy is not desired and does not get full support from the family. In that case, the chances are that the mother will experience postpartum depression or baby blues.
6. Trigger Hypertension
Hypertension or high blood pressure is a condition that can cause excessive dizziness and headaches. This condition can appear as one of the risks of early pregnancy because women under the age of 20 years have eggs that are not yet strong and mature to accommodate pregnancy.
Under normal conditions, hypertension can be prevented by consuming fruits and reducing salt intake. The most significant danger experienced by pregnant women with hypertension is bleeding.
7. Heavy Bleeding During Childbirth
Still related to the discussion in the previous point, pregnant at a young age can be at risk of bleeding before and during childbirth. Generally, this condition is caused by the reproductive organs that are not ready. Therefore there is a rule of 21 years as the ideal age for marriage and having children.
The choice of age limit itself is not without reason because a woman’s hips already have the perfect size and strength to support the baby. Besides, the mental condition is also much better so that the risk of postpartum bleeding can be reduced.
Risks of Young Age Pregnancy for Baby’s Health
Premature birth and weighting regular are risks for babies born due to pregnancy at an early age. The following is a review related to the dangers of early pregnancy for the baby’s health that you need to know.
1. Potential for Physical Disability
The risk of getting pregnant at a young age will not only be accepted by the mother but also dangerous for the baby’s health. One of the risks is physical defects that occur due to the incomplete fertilization process.
From medical facts, women under 20 generally have immature eggs. As a result, when fertilized by sperm and fertilization occurs, this will have the potential to produce a physically disabled fetus.
2. Babies Born Prematurely
For information, a baby can be premature if birth is under nine months or less than 37 weeks. Premature birth can cause several effects for the baby, from a weaker body condition, susceptibility to disease, and future growth.
Apart from that, premature birth usually occurs due to several things. One of them is the risk of getting pregnant at a young age and eating pineapples while pregnant.
3. Low Birth Weight (LBW)
Given the high risk of babies being born prematurely due to early pregnancy, babies also can be born with low birth weight (LBW). Malnutrition and poor diet during pregnancy are often the cause of this condition.
Under normal conditions, the average baby weighs about 3 kilograms when born. While in a premature condition, the baby’s weight is in the range of 1-2 kilograms.
That’s an explanation of the risks of getting pregnant at a young age that you need to know. You can use the information above as a reference so that unwanted things don’t happen in the future. Pregnancy and giving birth is typically a dream for every couple, so there needs to be careful planning.