For those studying biology, especially women’s reproduction, you must be familiar with the term fertilization. Fertilization is the process that occurs in a woman’s body before the birth of a baby. Fertilization, in general, is called conception.
For more precise information about fertilization, how the process is, and the conditions that can make it happen, be sure to see the complete information below.
Fertilization Definition and Function
Fertilization is a process of the union of women’s egg cells and sperm cells from men or generally called gamete. This process is usually named the conception process that will create a single cell or called a zygote. The place where fertilization occurs is in a woman’s fallopian tube, called the oviduct.
Fertilization that occurs in humans is called internal fertilization. This is because the fertilization process or conception occurs directly inside the woman’s body. This condition makes humans produce only a tiny number of zygotes but much safer.
Fertilization has so many functions for humans, like:
- Help to push egg cells so they can start the conception process
- Can pass genetic material from the male to the female in children
- Can make the number of chromosomes from the haploid part to be diploid again
- Can determine the sex of the child at the time of conception
Conditions for Fertilization
For fertilization to occur, some conditions need to exist. One of the most important is the maturation of the ovum and sperm produced has good quality. Moreover, there are some other conditions that you need to take note of if you want the fertilization to occur, that is:
- The meeting of egg cells and sperm cells
- There must be a time setting for fertilization in humans when the sperm enters the egg cell
- The fusion of genetic from sperm and egg cells
- The metabolic activation of eggs to be able to start development
If all of the conditions for fertilization to occur have been met, then you can start the conception process. There are a few steps that you need to go through in this fertilization process that are:
1. Maturation Process
The first stage of the fertilization process is maturing gamete cells or egg cells and sperm cells first. Eggs that are ready to be fertilized have to be mature. The method of egg cell maturation happens inside the ovarium. Young egg cells, called follicles, will experience maturation with the help of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Then the big follicle will stimulate the estrogen hormone to form the lining of the uterus and detect if the pregnancy can happen or not.
Whereas for sperm cells, maturation occurs in the epididymis. In this process, the sperm cells will usually be fully matured to start the conception. But later, there will be only one type of sperm that is superior and ready to fertilize the egg.
2. Ejaculation Process
The next step of the fertilization process and pregnancy is the process of ejaculation. The discharge of sperm marks this process into the vagina. Usually, every time men ejaculate, they can discharge more or less 120 million sperm cells for 1 ml fluid.
3. The Occurrence of Spermatozoa Capacitance
During the sperm immersion process in the female organ system, the sperm will experience capacitance. For those who don’t know, spermatozoa capacitance is the process of sperm adapting in the uterus by removing the glycoprotein sheath.
4.Sperm and Ovum Diffusion
When the egg cells are activated in the normal fertilization process, the egg cell wall will be fortified from the other sperm cells. Then will be formed male pronucleus inside the sperm cells and the female pronucleus.
Not only that, there will be a pronucleus formation on male and female then there will be a singami process or the union of the two cells. The union will experience diffusion, and that is called the fertilization process.
Along with the advanced technology development, the fertilization process or the conception of egg cells by sperm cells can also be done scientifically or artificially. That means that the process of fertilization not only can be done by direct sexual intercourse between males and females. Artificial fertilization uses in vitro fertilization technology, better known as a test-tube baby.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) itself is divided into two types that are conventional IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Traditional IVF processes are performed on couples who have normal sperm quality. The method is to mate 100 thousand sperm with one egg cell in a petri dish.
Whereas ICSI is carried out for couples with very little sperm quality, only one sperm is alive. This one sperm then will be directly injected into the cytoplasm from the egg cells.
The fertilized egg from the picture of the fertilization process in humans will then become an embryo. Then the embryo will be selected to choose the best and will be selected by an embryologist for further transfer or freezing depending on the doctor’s judgment.
This artificial fertilization process usually is done by couples that are hard to have children naturally. Even if it has a high pregnancy success, this in vitro fertilization or test-tube baby requires expensive costs. This is because of the long process and requires a lengthy analysis.
What If The Fertilization Process Doesn’t Work
A successful fertilization process will cause the egg cell to swim through the fallopian tube to the uterus. Then, the egg will stick to the uterine wall and form a placenta to transfer oxygen so that the fetus can grow properly in the womb.
In the unsuccessful fertilization process, the egg will not be active, marked by the sloughing of the uterine wall or the menstrual event, called the discharge of blood from the vagina. If you experience menstruation after fertilization, it means that the fertilization has failed.
That’s an analysis of fertilization that you need to understand. Fertilization is a complex process, but it must be understood by every couple, especially if they want to have children. If you have trouble getting results from the natural fertilization process, then there is no harm to try artificial fertilization or in vitro fertilization. However, this method also does not guarantee that you have 100 per cent children, so it is necessary to consult a doctor regularly.